Derwynd's Weblog

Derwynd's Weblog

Extracting certificates from java keystore to use in apache.conf

So you have a javakeystore and want to extract the certificate….

heres what I did .. of course I had the passphrase

Downloaded ….
$ java-1.6.0-openjdk-1.6.0.0-0.25.b09.el5.x86_64.rpm

$ rpm -ivh java-1.6.0-openjdk-1.6.0.0-0.25.b09.el5.x86_64.rpm

$ cd /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.6.0-openjdk-1.6.0.0.x86_64/jre/bin/keytool

and
$ ./keytool -importkeystore -srckeystore /opt/certs/final/NetworthKeyStore -destkeystore /tmp/mystore.p12 -srcstoretype JKS -deststoretype PKCS12 -noprompt

Enter destination keystore password:
Re-enter new password:
Enter source keystore password:
Entry for alias networthpnbkey successfully imported.
Import command completed: 1 entries successfully imported, 0 entries failed or cancelled

where KeyStore is the java keystore name

So I got a /tmp/mystore.p12 with everything great
now for some ssl magic
$ openssl pkcs12 -info -in /tmp/mystore.p12

Enter Import Password:
MAC Iteration 1024
MAC verified OK
PKCS7 Data
Shrouded Keybag: pbeWithSHA1And3-KeyTripleDES-CBC, Iteration 1024
Bag Attributes
friendlyName: pubkey
localKeyID: 52 69 3D 69 50 41 22 69 33 34 36 36 32 34 34 36 30 35
Key Attributes:
Enter PEM pass phrase:
Verifying – Enter PEM pass phrase:

Copy the following from output…….

—–BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY—–
Proc-Type: 4,ENCRYPTED
DEK-Info: DES-EDE3-CBC,FE731BD9D499A31B
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—–END RSA PRIVATE KEY—–

—–BEGIN CERTIFICATE—–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—–END CERTIFICATE—–

Go ahead and import in your apache config

January 14, 2010 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

What is bonding?

What is bonding?
The Linux bonding driver provides a method for aggregating multiple network interfaces into a single logical “bonded” interface.
The behavior of the bonded interfaces depends upon the mode; generally speaking, modes provide either hot standby or load balancing services.
Additionally, link integrity monitoring may be performed.

ie you can aggregate three megabits ports (1 mb each) into a three-megabits trunk port.
That is equivalent with having one interface with three megabits speed.

This small howto will try to cover the most used bonding types.
The following script will configure a bond interface (bond0) using two ethernet interface (eth0 and eth1).

————————————————————-
#!/bin/bash
set -x
# 1: Create a bond0 configuration file
touch /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0
echo “DEVICE=bond0
IPADDR=192.168.x.x
NETWORK=192.168.0.0
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
USERCTL=no
BOOTPROTO=static
ONBOOT=yes” > /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0

# 2: Modify eth0 and eth1 config files:
echo “USERCTL=no
MASTER=bond0
SLAVE=yes” >> /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
echo “USERCTL=no
MASTER=bond0
SLAVE=yes” >> /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1
sed -i ‘s/ONBOOT=.*/ONBOOT=yes/g’ /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
sed -i ‘s/ONBOOT=.*/ONBOOT=yes/g’ /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1
sed -i ‘s/BOOTPROTO=.*/BOOTPROTO=static/g’ /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
sed -i ‘s/BOOTPROTO=.*/BOOTPROTO=static/g’ /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1

# 3: Load bond driver/module
echo “alias bond0 bonding
options bond0 mode=1 miimon=100″ >> /etc/modprobe.conf

# 4: Test configuration
modprobe bonding
service network restart
sleep 2
cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0
echo ” ifconfig for bonding”
/sbin/ifconfig | grep bond

————————————————————-

You can set up your bond interface mode according to your needs. Changing one parameter (mode=X) in /etc/modeprobe.conf you can have the following bonding types:

* mode=0 (balance-rr or 0)
Round-robin policy: Transmit packets in sequential order from the first available slave through the last. This mode provides load balancing and fault tolerance.

* mode=1 (active-backup or 1)
Active-backup policy: Only one slave in the bond is active. A different slave becomes active if, and only if, the active slave fails. The bond’s MAC address is externally visible on only one port (network adapter) to avoid confusing the switch. This mode provides fault tolerance. The primary option affects the behavior of this mode.

* mode=2 (balance-xor or 2)
XOR policy: Transmit based on [(source MAC address XOR’d with destination MAC address) modulo slave count]. This selects the same slave for each destination MAC address. This mode provides load balancing and fault tolerance.

* mode=3 (broadcast or 3)
Broadcast policy: transmits everything on all slave interfaces. This mode provides fault tolerance.

* mode=4 (802.3ad or 4)
IEEE 802.3ad Dynamic link aggregation. Creates aggregation groups that share the same speed and duplex settings. Utilizes all slaves in the active aggregator according to the 802.3ad specification.

Pre-requisites:
1. Ethtool support in the base drivers for retrieving
the speed and duplex of each slave.
2. A switch that supports IEEE 802.3ad Dynamic link
aggregation.
Most switches will require some type of configuration
to enable 802.3ad mode.

* mode=5 (balance-tlb or 5)
Adaptive transmit load balancing: channel bonding that does not require any special switch support. The outgoing traffic is distributed according to the current load (computed relative to the speed) on each slave. Incoming traffic is received by the current slave. If the receiving slave fails, another slave takes over the MAC address of the failed receiving slave.

Prerequisite:
Ethtool support in the base drivers for retrieving the
speed of each slave.

* mode=6 (balance-alb or 6)
Adaptive load balancing: includes balance-tlb plus receive load balancing (rlb) for IPV4 traffic, and does not require any special switch support. The receive load balancing is achieved by ARP negotiation. The bonding driver intercepts the ARP Replies sent by the local system on their way out and overwrites the source hardware address with the unique hardware address of one of the slaves in the bond such that different peers use different hardware addresses for the server.

The contents of the ifcfg-bondX file is as follows:

BOOTPROTO=”static”
BROADCAST=”10.0.2.255″
IPADDR=”10.0.2.10″
NETMASK=”255.255.0.0″
NETWORK=”10.0.2.0″
REMOTE_IPADDR=””
STARTMODE=”onboot”
BONDING_MASTER=”yes”
BONDING_MODULE_OPTS=”mode=active-backup miimon=100″
BONDING_SLAVE0=”eth0″
BONDING_SLAVE1=”bus-pci-0000:06:08.1″

Replace the sample BROADCAST, IPADDR, NETMASK and NETWORK values with the appropriate values for your network.

Notes:
* For later versions of initscripts, such as that found with Fedora 7 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux version 5 (or later), it is possible, and, indeed, preferable, to specify the bonding options in the ifcfg-bond0 file, e.g. a line of the format:

BONDING_OPTS=”mode=active-backup arp_interval=60 arp_ip_target=+192.168.1.254″

* To restore your slaves MAC addresses, you need to detach them from the bond (`ifenslave -d bond0 eth0′). The bonding driver will then restore the MAC addresses that the slaves had before they were enslaved.
* The bond MAC address will be the taken from its first slave device.
* Promiscous mode: According to your bond type, when you put the bond interface in the promiscous mode it will propogates the setting to the slave devices as follow:
o for mode=0,2,3 and 4 the promiscuous mode setting is propogated to all slaves.
o for mode=1,5 and 6 the promiscuous mode setting is propogated only to the active slave.
For balance-tlb mode the active slave is the slave currently receiving inbound traffic, for balance-alb mode the active slave is the slave used as a “primary.” and for the active-backup, balance-tlb and balance-alb modes, when the active slave changes (e.g., due to a link failure), the promiscuous setting will be propogated to the new active slave.

January 6, 2010 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Xen rescue paravirtualization

===Rescue===

Shut down the GuestOS safely by logging into the GuestOS and issuing the command poweroff or

$ xm shutdown alfa

Copy or download the ”’initrd.img”’ and ”’vmlinuz”’ files from /images/xen/ directory of Red Hat Enterprise Linux install media tree to Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtualization Host. In this test case these files are copied to the directory ”’/var/lib/xen/images/tmp/”’ of the Virtualization host.

Modify the GuestOS configuration file on the Virtualization Host itself to enable boot it from rescue environment. In this test case the GuesOS in question is called alfa and its configuration file is /etc/xen/alfa

1. copy the config file ”’/etc/xen/alfa”’ to ”’/etc/xen/alfa_rescue”’

2. In the config file ”’/etc/xen/alfa_rescue”’, comment the bootloader line:

#bootloader="/usr/bin/pygrub"

3. Append the following to the configuration before the ”’disk =”’ line file temporarily and save it.

kernel = "/var/lib/xen/images/tmp/vmlinuz"
ramdisk = "/var/lib/xen/images/tmp/initrd.img"
extra = "rescue"

4. Sample

name = "alfa"
uuid = "96b6da3e-70a7-a0a0-7c68-67a0f83d8264"
maxmem = 512
memory = 512
vcpus = 1
#bootloader = "/usr/bin/pygrub"
on_poweroff = "destroy"
on_reboot = "restart"
on_crash = "restart"
vfb = [  ]
kernel = "/var/lib/xen/images/tmp/vmlinuz"
ramdisk = "/var/lib/xen/images/tmp/initrd.img"
extra = "rescue"
disk = [ "tap:aio:/var/lib/xen/images/alfa.img,xvda,w" ]
vif = [ "mac=00:16:3e:13:62:2f,bridge=xenbr0" ]

5. Re-create (start) the GuestOS with xm command

 
 xm create -c alfa_rescue

6.

                   +---------+ Choose a Language +---------+
                   |                                       |
                   | What language would you like to use   |
                   | during the installation process?      |
                   |                                       |
                   |       Catalan                ^        |
                   |       Chinese(Simplified)    :        |
                   |       Chinese(Traditional)   #        |
                   |       Croatian               :        |
                   |       Czech                  :        |
                   |       Danish                 :        |
                   |       Dutch                  :        |
                   |       English                v        |
                   |                                       |
                   |                +----+                 |
                   |                | OK |                 |
                   |                +----+                 |
                   |                                       |
                   |                                       |
                   +---------------------------------------+

7. Chose HTTP

               +---------------+ Rescue Method +----------------+
               |                                                |
               | What type of media contains the rescue image?  |
               |                                                |
               |                  Local CDROM                   |
               |                  Hard drive                    |
               |                  NFS image                     |
               |                  FTP                           |
               |                  HTTP                          |
               |                                                |
               |        +----+                 +------+         |
               |        | OK |                 | Back |         |
               |        +----+                 +------+         |
               |                                                |
               |                                                |
               +------------------------------------------------+

8. Set IP

             +----------------+ Configure TCP/IP +----------------+
             |                                                    |
             | [*] Enable IPv4 support                            |
             |        ( ) Dynamic IP configuration (DHCP)         |
             |        (*) Manual configuration                    |
             |                                                    |
             | [ ] Enable IPv6 support                            |
             |        (*) Automatic neighbor discovery (RFC 2461) |
             |        ( ) Dynamic IP configuration (DHCP)         |
             |        ( ) Manual configuration                    |
             |                                                    |
             |          +----+                  +------+          |
             |          | OK |                  | Back |          |
             |          +----+                  +------+          |
             |                                                    |
             |                                                    |
             +----------------------------------------------------+

         +--------------+ Manual TCP/IP Configuration +---------------+
         |                                                            |
         | Enter the IPv4 and/or the IPv6 address and prefix          |
         | (address / prefix).  For IPv4, the dotted-quad netmask     |
         | or the CIDR-style prefix are acceptable. The gateway and   |
         | name server fields must be valid IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.   |
         |                                                            |
         | IPv4 address: 192.168.y.yy__ / 255.255.255.0_____          |
         | Gateway:      192.168.z.zz____________________________    |
         | Name Server:  192.168.z.zz____________________________    |
         |                                                            |
         |            +----+                      +------+            |
         |            | OK |                      | Back |            |
         |            +----+                      +------+            |
         |                                                            |
         |                                                            |
         +------------------------------------------------------------+

9. Http setting

    +---------------------------+ HTTP Setup +----------------------------+
    |                                                                     |
    |           Please enter the following information:                   |
    |                                                                     |
    |               o the name or IP number of your Web server            |
    |               o the directory on that server containing             |
    |                 Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server for                 |
    |           your architecture                                         |
    |                                                                     |
    | Web site name:                             192.168.x.x___________ |
    | Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server directory: rhelxxx_________________ |
    |                                                                     |
    |              +----+                           +------+              |
    |              | OK |                           | Back |              |
    |              +----+                           +------+              |
    |                                                                     |
    |                                                                     |
    +---------------------------------------------------------------------+

10. Rescue

            +---------------------+ Rescue +----------------------+
            |                                                     |
            | The rescue environment will now attempt to find   ^ |
            | your Linux installation and mount it under the    # |
            | directory /mnt/sysimage.  You can then make any   : |
            | changes required to your system.  If you want     : |
            | to proceed with this step choose 'Continue'.      : |
            | You can also choose to mount your file systems    : |
            | read-only instead of read-write by choosing       : |
            | 'Read-Only'.                                      : |
            |                                                   : |
            | If for some reason this process fails you can     : |
            | choose 'Skip' and this step will be skipped and   : |
            | you will go directly to a command shell.          v |
            |                                                     |
            |   +----------+      +-----------+      +------+     |
            |   | Continue |      | Read-Only |      | Skip |     |
            |   +----------+      +-----------+      +------+     |
            |                                                     |
            |                                                     |
            +-----------------------------------------------------+
                  +---------------+ Rescue +----------------+
                  |                                         |
                  | Your system has been mounted under      |
                  | /mnt/sysimage.                          |
                  |                                         |
                  | Press  to get a shell. If you   |
                  | would like to make your system the      |
                  | root environment, run the command:      |
                  |                                         |
                  |         chroot /mnt/sysimage            |
                  |                                         |
                  | The system will reboot automatically    |
                  | when you exit from the shell.           |
                  |                                         |
                  |                 +----+                  |
                  |                 | OK |                  |
                  |                 +----+                  |
                  |                                         |
                  |                                         |
                  +-----------------------------------------+
Your system is mounted under the /mnt/sysimage directory.
When finished please exit from the shell and your system will reboot.

sh-3.2#

January 6, 2010 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

flash player on firefox 64 bite

After upgrading my firefox found out the flash was not working.

Downloaded libflashplayer-10.0.32.18.linux-x86_64.so.tar.gz from Adobe site
This contains libflashplayer.so

Just copy it to /usr/lib64/mozilla/plugins/
Restart browser and check.

December 5, 2009 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Samba4 HOWTO + Fedora

$ cd samba-master/
$ rm .git/objects/info/alternates
$ rm .git/refs/tags/*
$ rm -r .git/refs/remotes/
$ git config remote.origin.url git://git.samba.org/samba.git
$ git config –add remote.origin.fetch +refs/tags/*:refs/tags/* (this line is optional)
$ git fetch

untar samba4.tgz
$ cd samba-master/source4
$ ./autogen.sh

$ cd samba-master/source4
$ ./configure
$ make

$ make install

PATH=/usr/local/samba/bin:/usr/local/samba/sbin:$PATH
export PATH

cd source4

./setup/provision –realm=SAMBA –domain=example.com –adminpass=qwerasdf –server-role=’domain controller’

Output
——————————-
Note
Server Role: domain controller
Hostname: samba
NetBIOS Domain: EXAMPLE.COM
DNS Domain: samba
DOMAIN SID: S-1-5-21-3157024369-3348094622-1625297388
Admin password: qwerasdf
——————————-

this will setup /usr/local/samba/etc/smb.conf
——————————-
[globals]
netbios name = samba
workgroup = example.com
realm = SAMBA
server role = domain controller

[netlogon]
path = /usr/local/samba/var/locks/sysvol/your.realm/scripts
read only = no

[sysvol]
path = /usr/local/samba/var/locks/sysvol
read only = no
——————————-

vim /usr/local/samba/etc/smb.conf

[test]
path = /data/test
read only = no

To start in single instance for testing purpose

cd /usr/local/samba/sbin/
./samba -i -M single

on another konsole
smbclient //localhost/test -Uadministrator%qwerasdf

for ldap
test
ldapsearch -h -x -b DC=samba

cd /usr/local/samba/private

install bind-9.5.1-0.5.b1.i386.rpm bind-libs-9.5.1-0.5.b1.i386.rpm bind-devel-9.5.1-0.5.b1.i386.rpm bind-utils-9.5.1-0.5.b1.i
386.rpm

or upgrade what comes with centos

Copy *just* your.realm.zone to /etc/bind/ (or wherever you want to store zone files) and then take a look at named.conf in th
e local directory.
cd /usr/local/samba/private

cp *.zone /etc/named/
cp named.conf /etc/named.samba
mv /etc/krb5.conf /etc/krb5.conf.ORIG
cp krb5.conf /etc/
cp /usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab /etc/named/dns.keytab

chgrp named /etc/named/dns.keytab
chmod g+r /etc/named/dns.keytab

please read named.txt file

in the /etc/named.conf file under the options section below
// query-source address * port 53;
add
tkey-gssapi-credential “DNS/samba”;
tkey-domain “SAMBA”;

and and
include “/etc/named.samba”; below the option section

in the /etc/init.d/named add
KEYTAB_FILE=”/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab”;
export KRB5_KTNAME=”/usr/local/samba/private/dns.keytab”;

and now restart the service

test via
dig _ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.samba SRV @localhost
respose

; <> DiG 9.5.1b1-RedHat-9.5.1-0.5.b1 <> _ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.samba SRV @localhost
;; global options: printcmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 65383
;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 1

;; QUESTION SECTION:
;_ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.samba. IN SRV

;; ANSWER SECTION:
_ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.samba. 604800 IN SRV 0 100 389 samba.samba.

;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
samba. 604800 IN NS samba.samba.

;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:
samba.samba. 604800 IN A 192.168.50.80

;; Query time: 3 msec
;; SERVER: 127.0.0.1#53(127.0.0.1)
;; WHEN: Wed Jan 21 11:01:40 2009
;; MSG SIZE rcvd: 105

stop iptables
chkconfig –level 2345 iptables off
chkconfig –level 2345 named on

ln -s /usr/local/samba/lib/libtalloc.so.1 /lib/
ln -s /usr/local/samba/lib/libtalloc.so.1 /usr/lib/
ln -s /usr/local/samba/lib/libtdb.so.1 /usr/lib/
ln -s /usr/local/samba/lib/libtdb.so.1 /lib/
ln -s /usr/local/samba/lib/libwbclient.so.0 /lib/
ln -s /usr/local/samba/lib/libwbclient.so.0 /usr/lib/

################################Windows for samba#########################################

configure a windows mc and download the exe for Domain administration & services.
Connect to the dns for administration and add users as in windows.
Use the added user to test linux compatibility

#########################################################################
On linux mc to configure the auth to the samba4 server
first configure samba3 and start service
smb.conf

————————Other Linux mc for samba———————————————-
[global]
#–authconfig–start-line–

# Generated by authconfig on 2009/01/28 13:30:34
# DO NOT EDIT THIS SECTION (delimited by –start-line–/–end-line–)
# Any modification may be deleted or altered by authconfig in future

workgroup = EXAMPLE.COM
password server = samba.example.com
realm = SAMBA
security = domain
idmap uid = 16777216-33554431
idmap gid = 16777216-33554431
winbind separator = +
template homedir = /samba/%U
template shell = /bin/bash
winbind use default domain = true
winbind offline logon = false
#–authconfig–end-line–
; workgroup = EXAMPLE.COM
; security = DOMAIN
; password server = samba.example.com
ldap ssl = no
; idmap uid = 16777216-33554431
; idmap gid = 16777216-33554431
; template homedir = /samba/%U
; template shell = /bin/bash
; winbind separator = +
winbind cache time = 10
; winbind use default domain = Yes
username = %u
add user script = /usr/sbin/adduser –quiet –disabled-password –gecos “” %u

[homes]
comment = Home Directories
path = %H
read only = No

———————————————————————-
configure authentication
system-config-authentication
User info
enable winbind support
Authentication
enable kerberos support

/usr/bin/net join -w EXAMPLE.COM -S samba.example.com -U Administrator

check with
wbinfo -u samba.example.com

April 6, 2009 Posted by | Uncategorized | 1 Comment

MRTG HowTo

$ yum install net-snmp-utils net-snmp net-snmp-libs

SNMP
======

$ vi /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf
———————————————————————–
com2sec local     localhost           public
com2sec mynetwork <ip>/class          public

group MyRWGroup v1         local
group MyRWGroup v2c        local
group MyRWGroup usm        local
group MyROGroup v1         mynetwork
group MyROGroup v2c        mynetwork
group MyROGroup usm        mynetwork

view all    included  .1                               80

access MyROGroup “”      any       noauth    exact  all    none   none
access MyRWGroup “”      any       noauth    exact  all    all    none

syslocation Linux (Hostname), hostname.
syscontact name <emailid>
———————————————————————–

$ service snmpd start
$ chkconfig –add snmpd

Test via
$ snmpwalk -v 1 -c public localhost IP-MIB::ipAdEntIfIndex
———————————————————————–
IP-MIB::ipAdEntIfIndex.10.0.0.2 = INTEGER: 3
IP-MIB::ipAdEntIfIndex.127.0.0.1 = INTEGER: 1
IP-MIB::ipAdEntIfIndex.203.201.253.231 = INTEGER: 2
IP-MIB::ipAdEntIfIndex.203.201.253.233 = INTEGER: 2
———————————————————————–

MRTG
======
$ yum install mrtg
$ mkdir -p /var/www/mrtg

create mrtg configuration file:
$ cfgmaker –global ‘WorkDir: /var/www/mrtg’ –output /etc/mrtg/mymrtg.cfg public@localhost

Create default index page for your MRTG configuration:
$ indexmaker –output=/var/www/mrtg/index.html /etc/mrtg/mymrtg.cfg

Run mrtg command from command line with your configuration file:
Run this 3 times ignoring errors

$ env LANG=C /usr/bin/mrtg /etc/mrtg/mymrtg.cfg

Add to crontab

*/5 * * * * env LANG=C /usr/bin/mrtg /etc/mrtg/mymrtg.cfg

HTTP
======

/etc/httpd/conf.d/mrtg.conf

Allow from 127.0.0.1 <your ip>

/etc/init.d/httpd restart

January 14, 2009 Posted by | Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Fedora/Redhat Kernel RPM with Xen & reiserfs

Download the src rpm

(eg. kernel-2.6.18-92.el5.src.rpm)

$ rpm -ivh kernel-2.6.18-92.el5.src.rpm

$ cd /usr/src/redhat/SPECS/

$ rpmbuild -bb kernel-2.6.spec

This will build
kernel-2.6.18-92.el5.x86_64.rpm                   kernel-devel-2.6.18-92.el5.x86_64.rpm
kernel-debug-2.6.18-92.el5.x86_64.rpm             kernel-headers-2.6.18-92.el5.x86_64.rpm
kernel-debug-debuginfo-2.6.18-92.el5.x86_64.rpm   kernel-xen-2.6.18-92.el5.x86_64.rpm
kernel-debug-devel-2.6.18-92.el5.x86_64.rpm       kernel-xen-debuginfo-2.6.18-92.el5.x86_64.rpm
kernel-debuginfo-2.6.18-92.el5.x86_64.rpm         kernel-xen-devel-2.6.18-92.el5.x86_64.rpm
kernel-debuginfo-common-2.6.18-92.el5.x86_64.rpm

Install the following rpm
$ kernel-xen-2.6.18-53.el5 xen-libs

Check the grub.conf file the xen lines will be added

#boot=/dev/sda
default=2
timeout=5
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
hiddenmenu
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.18-53.el5xen)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /xen.gz-2.6.18-53.el5
module /vmlinuz-2.6.18-53.el5xen ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet
module /initrd-2.6.18-53.el5xen.img
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.18-53.el5)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.18-53.el5 ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet
initrd /initrd-2.6.18-53.el5.img

If you list the files in /boot/ are added
vmlinuz-2.6.18-53.el5
initrd-2.6.18-53.el5.img
xen.gz-2.6.18-53.el5
xen-syms-2.6.18-53.el5

Now to build the kernel from the BUILD dir

$ cd /usr/src/redhat/BUILD/kernel-2.6.18/linux-2.6.18.x86_64/
$ make menuconfig

——————————————————————-

Processor type and features  —>
[*] Enable Xen compatible kernel

File systems  —>
<M> Reiserfs support
[ ]   Enable reiserfs debug mode
[ ]   Stats in /proc/fs/reiserfs
[*]   ReiserFS extended attributes
[ ]     ReiserFS POSIX Access Control Lists
[ ]     ReiserFS Security Labels

XEN  —>
[*] Privileged Guest (domain 0)
<*> Backend driver support
<M>   Block-device backend driver
<M>   Block-device tap backend driver
<M>   Network-device backend driver
[ ]     Pipelined transmitter (DANGEROUS)
<M>     Network-device loopback driver
<M>   PCI-device backend driver
PCI Backend Mode (Virtual PCI)  —>
[ ]     PCI Backend Debugging
< >   TPM-device backend driver
<M> Block-device frontend driver
<M> Network-device frontend driver
<*> Framebuffer-device frontend driver
<*>   Keyboard-device frontend driver
[*] Scrub memory before freeing it to Xen
[ ] Disable serial port drivers
<*> Export Xen attributes in sysfs
Xen version compatibility (3.0.2 and later)  —>

——————————————————————-
Build the kernel (if you have not changed the Makefile the subversion is EXTRAVERSION = -92.el5debug)

This will create vmlinuz-2.6.18-92.el5debug

$ mkinitrd /boot/initrd-2.6.18-92.el5debug.img 2.6.18-92.el5debug
(For the initrd img)

Add lines to grub.conf
——————————————————————
default=2
timeout=5
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
hiddenmenu
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.18-53.el5xen)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /xen.gz-2.6.18-53.el5
module /vmlinuz-2.6.18-53.el5xen ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet
module /initrd-2.6.18-53.el5xen.img
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.18-53.el5)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.18-53.el5 ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet
initrd /initrd-2.6.18-53.el5.img
title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server (2.6.18-53.el5Debxen)
root (hd0,0)
kernel /xen.gz-2.6.18-53.el5
module /vmlinuz-2.6.18-92.el5debug ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 rhgb quiet
module /initrd-2.6.18-92.el5debug.img
——————————————————————

Reboot

November 10, 2008 Posted by | Uncategorized | Comments Off on Fedora/Redhat Kernel RPM with Xen & reiserfs

MYSQL REPLICATION

A) Master –> Slave

MASTER
-=-=-=-

mysql> GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO ‘slave_user’@’%’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘slavepass’;
mysql> flush privileges;
mysql> CREATE DATABASE exampledb;

In my.cnf of Master

[mysqld]
log-bin=mysql-bin
server-id=1
max_allowed_packet=16M
binlog-do-db=exampledb

dump the database and scp to slave
mysqldump -u root –opt exampledb > /tmp/exampledb.sql

Slave
-=-=-=-

mysql> CREATE DATABASE exampledb;

Import database
mysql -u root exampledb < /tmp/exampledb.sql

In my.cnf of Slave
[mysqld]
server-id=2
master-host     =   192.168.50.81 #Master IP
master-user     =  slave_user
master-password =   slavepass
master-connect-retry= 60
max_allowed_packet=16M
replicate-do-db=exampledb
log-warnings

On Both servers restart the mysql

Test by on Master

mysql> show master status;
+——————+———-+————–+——————+
| File             | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB |
+——————+———-+————–+——————+
| mysql-bin.000002 |      270 | exampledb    |                  |
+——————+———-+————–+——————+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Test by on Slave
mysql> show slave status\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
Master_Host: 192.168.50.81
Master_User: slave_user
Master_Port: 3306
Connect_Retry: 60
Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000002
Read_Master_Log_Pos: 270
Relay_Log_File: mysqlslav-relay-bin.000006
Relay_Log_Pos: 407
Relay_Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000002
Slave_IO_Running: Yes
Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
Replicate_Do_DB: exampledb
Replicate_Ignore_DB:
Replicate_Do_Table:
Replicate_Ignore_Table:
Replicate_Wild_Do_Table:
Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table:
Last_Errno: 0
Last_Error:
Skip_Counter: 0
Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 270
Relay_Log_Space: 407
Until_Condition: None
Until_Log_File:
Until_Log_Pos: 0
Master_SSL_Allowed: No
Master_SSL_CA_File:
Master_SSL_CA_Path:
Master_SSL_Cert:
Master_SSL_Cipher:
Master_SSL_Key:
Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

On Master
mysql> use exampledb;
mysql> CREATE TABLE test ( `field1` varchar(8) NOT NULL default ”, `field2` tinyint(4) unsigned default NULL );

On Slave
mysql> use exampledb;
mysql> show tables;
+———————+
| Tables_in_exampledb |
+———————+
| test                |
+———————+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
B) MASTER <—-> Master

On the
server
Under the mysqld section add
[mysqld]

# let’s make it so auto increment columns behave by having different increments on both servers
auto_increment_increment=2
auto_increment_offset=1
# Replication Master Server
# binary logging is required for replication
log-bin=master1-bin
binlog-ignore-db=mysql
binlog-ignore-db=test
# required unique id between 1 and 2^32 – 1
server-id = 1
#following is the slave settings so this server can connect to master2
master-host = 192.168.50.82
master-user = slave_user
master-password = slavepass
master-port = 3306

mysql> GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO ‘slave_user’@’192.168.50.82’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘slavepass’;
mysql> flush privileges;

On the 192.168.50.82 server
Under the mysqld section add
[mysqld]

# let’s make it so auto increment columns behave by having different increments on both servers
auto_increment_increment=2
auto_increment_offset=2
# Replication Master Server
# binary logging is required for replication
log-bin=master2-bin
binlog-ignore-db=mysql
binlog-ignore-db=test
# required unique id between 1 and 2^32 – 1
server-id = 2
#following is the slave settings so this server can connect to master2
master-host = 192.168.50.81
master-user = slave_user
master-password = slavepass
master-port = 3306

mysql> GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO ‘slave_user’@’192.168.50.81’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘slavepass’;
mysql> flush privileges;

Restart Mysql on both servers;
Check by creating database on one server
ie

on 192.168.50.81

mysql> create database exampledb;
mysql> show databases;
+——————–+
| Database           |
+——————–+
| information_schema |
| exampledb          |
| mysql              |
| test               |
+——————–+

on 192.168.50.82
mysql> show databases;
+——————–+
| Database           |
+——————–+
| information_schema |
| exampledb          |
| mysql              |
| test               |
+——————–+

mysql> use exampledb;
mysql> CREATE TABLE test ( `field1` varchar(8) NOT NULL default ”, `field2` tinyint(4) unsigned default NULL );

on 192.168.50.81
mysql> show tables;
+———————+
| Tables_in_exampledb |
+———————+
| test                |
+———————+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Restarting Replication if broken

Get latest mysql dump file from master and replicate on slave

on the master run
show master status;

Take the File and position values and run on slave

  stop slave;
  CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST='192.168.50.81',
  MASTER_USER='slave_user',
  MASTER_PASSWORD='password',
  MASTER_LOG_FILE='mail2-bin.00002',
  MASTER_LOG_POS=37;
  start slave;

Replace the filename and position with actual ones

restart mysql on slave

Multiple Replication

To set up replication like

 A --> B --> c

Follow the same steps to set up replication on the C server from B
Edit the my.cnf file on B server and add to what is already present

log-warnings
log-bin=mysql-bin
max_allowed_packet=16M
binlog-do-db=mail
log-slave-updates
sync-binlog=1
relay-log=<hostname>-relay-bin
log-slave-updates -- This is for the slave to write to it's log file so that C server can read the logs

On server C along with the master slave configuration add this

log-warnings
log-bin=mysql-bin
max_allowed_packet=16M
binlog-do-db=mail
sync-binlog=1
relay-log=<hostname>-relay-bin
slave_net_timeout=30
master-connect-retry=10
slave-skip-errors
slave_net_timeout -- The default for the slave_net_timeout setting is 3600,
which is 60 minutes. I've set this to 30.
It also removes a step in resuming replication of "STOP SLAVE; START SLAVE" 

master-connect-retry -- The number of seconds the slave thread will sleep before retrying
to connect to the master in case the master goes down or the connection is lost. Default is 60.

November 10, 2008 Posted by | Uncategorized | Comments Off on MYSQL REPLICATION

Installation and management of XEN on Redhat-linux

$ yum install xen kernel-xen*

Reboot with xen kernel after changes in grub

$ ps aux | grep xend

If you do not see xend in the resulting listing, you need to start it yourself by switching to root with su – and then running

$ /etc/init.d/xend start
$ free -m
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:           942        332        609          0         26        239
-/+ buffers/cache:         66        875
Swap:         1996          0       1996
$ xm list

which prints out a list of all the virtual machines that are running and how much RAM they have allocated — you should see Domain-0, which is your current system, in the list.

$ xm list
Name                                      ID Mem(MiB) VCPUs State   Time(s)
Domain-0                                   0      942     1 r-----     55.4

The output from xm list probably shows that domain 0 is taking up all the RAM on your system, which means there is no room to create a new guest OS.

$ xm mem-set Domain-0 256
$ xm mem-max Domain-0 256

Run the command xm mem-set Domain-0 256 to have domain 0 use 256MB RAM

$ xm list
Name                                      ID Mem(MiB) VCPUs State   Time(s)
Domain-0                                   0      256     1 r-----     58.2
****Note that for the default setup, networking for guest OS's is bridged. This means that they will get an IP address on the same network as your host, thus, if you have a DHCP server providing addresses, you will need to ensure that it is configured to give addresses to your guests. You can change to another networking type by editing /etc/xen/xend-config.sxp
$ virt-install

What is the name of your virtual machine? test
 How much RAM should be allocated (in megabytes)? 256
 What would you like to use as the disk (file path)? /opt/test1
 How large would you like the disk (/opt/test1) to be (in gigabytes)? 4
 Would you like to enable graphics support? (yes or no) no
 What is the install location? /opt/testinst
 ERROR:  Install media location must be an NFS, HTTP or FTP network install source, or an existing local file/device
 What is the install location? http://192.168.50.50/centos52

This information can also be passed as command line options; run with an argument of –help for more details. In particular, kickstart options can be passed with

 virt-install -x ks=options
eg
 virt-install -x ks=http://192.168.50.8/rhelas.cfg
$ /usr/sbin/virt-install

The following questions about the new guest OS will be presented. This information can also be passed as command line options; run with an argument of --help for more details. In particular, kickstart options can be passed with -x ks=options.

   1. What is the name of your virtual machine? This is the label that will identify the guest OS. This label will be used for various xm commands and also appear in virt-manager the Gnome-panel Xen applet. In addition, it will be the name of the /etc/xen/<name> file that stores the guest's configuration information.
   2. How much RAM should be allocated (in megabytes)? This is the amount of RAM to be allocated for the guest instance in megabytes (eg, 256). Note that installation with less than 256 megabytes is not recommended.
   3. What would you like to use as the disk (path)? The local path and file name of the file to serve as the disk image for the guest (eg, /home/joe/xenbox1). This will be exported as a full disk to your guest.
   4. How large would you like the disk to be (in gigabytes)? The size of the virtual disk for the guest (only appears if the file specified above does not already exist). 4.0 gigabytes is a reasonable size for a "default" install
   5. Would you like to enable graphics support (yes or no): Should the graphical installer be used?
   6.  What is the install location? This is the path to a Fedora Core 6 installation tree in the format used by anaconda. NFS, FTP, and HTTP locations are all supported. Examples include:
          * nfs:my.nfs.server.com:/path/to/test2/tree/
          * http://my.http.server.com/path/to/tree/
          * ftp://my.ftp.server.com/path/to/tree

      {i} Installation must be a network type. It is not possible to install from a local disk or CDROM. It is possible, however, to set up an installation tree on the host OS and then export it as an NFS share.

The xen config files are usually found under /etc/xen

to restart a console with a mc

$ xm create -c <configfile>

You can connect to the console of any virtual machine by running

$ xm list
$ xm console <yourvmname>

Xen request the VM to shutdown

$ xm shutdown <yourvmname>

On Linux, this goes through the whole shutdown sequence properly, ensuring that the machine is cleanly terminated. If you want an immediate shutdown, use

$ xm destroy yourvm

but make sure the virtual machine is in a safe state first — if you have a text file open and unsaved, for example, it will be lost.

The xm command can also be used to save snapshots of a virtual machine, rather than just switching them off. To do this, use

$ xm save yourvm yourvm.state

That command essentially saves the RAM of the yourvm VM (change yourvm to whatever you called your virtual machine) to a file and then turns off the VM. To restore a saved state, just use

$ xm restore yourvm.state

To display top-like statistics for all running machines:

$ /usr/sbin/xm top

On the virtualization host server, open a terminal and enter

xm delete vm_name

to delete the virtual machine’s reference in xenstore so it is no longer managed.

Hacks

For CDROM

open the xen config under /ect/xen/mc-name and add

eg if the xm machine is called relay1 under /ect/xen/relay1
add 

disk = [ "tap:aio:/opt/relay1,xvda,w",
'phy:/dev/cdrom,hdc:cdrom,r']

After starting the mc try

mount /dev/hdc /media/

To mount a iso in place of cdrom

disk = [ "tap:aio:/com_xen/atoq,xvda,w",'file:/tmp/fedorax.iso,hdc:cdrom,r' ]

After starting the mc try 

mount /dev/hdc /media/

Or in rc.local add 

ln -s /dev/hdc /dev/cdrom to be able to mount /dev/cdrom

To automatically run the guest after a system (Dom0) reboot, we have to create the following link:

$ ln -s /etc/xen/[guest_name] /etc/xen/auto/

For 2 network-interfaces

Shut down the xen m/c first

in /etc/xen/xend-config.sxp
find (network-script network-bridge) line
replace with
(network-script network-multi-bridge)
$ cd /etc/xen/scripts
$ vi network-multi-bridge
#!/bin/sh
dir=$(dirname "$0")
"$dir/network-bridge" "$@" vifnum=0 bridge=xenbr0 netdev=eth0
"$dir/network-bridge" "$@" vifnum=1 bridge=xenbr1 netdev=eth0 (or eth1)

Be sure to make the script executable

$ chmod +x network-multi-bridge

In my /etc/xen/test config I’v added a second interface

name = "test"
uuid = "44147e5d-a9a1-dfa5-24a5-646b9543ccbb"
maxmem = 256
memory = 256
vcpus = 1
bootloader = "/usr/bin/pygrub"
on_poweroff = "destroy"
on_reboot = "restart"
on_crash = "restart"
vfb = [  ]
disk = [ "tap:aio:/opt/test1,xvda,w" ]
vif = [ "mac=00:16:3e:1e:83:6e,bridge=xenbr0",
        "mac=00:16:3e:1e:83:7e,bridge=xenbr1" ]

Please restart

xend

service
To generate a unique mac address for use

echo "#! /usr/bin/python
# macgen.py script generates a MAC address for Xen guests
#
import random
mac = [ 0x00, 0x16, 0x3e,
random.randint(0x00, 0x7f),
random.randint(0x00, 0xff),
random.randint(0x00, 0xff) ]
print ':'.join(map(lambda x: '%02x' % x, mac))" > /tmp/macgen

$ python /tmp/macgen

The configuration files in /etc/xen are in text format and so are easily edited.
For example, if you want to change the number of CPUs a VM sees, look for the vcpus setting.
Note that these are virtual CPUs rather than real ones —
you can set this to 8 and have your guest see eight CPUs, even if your actual machine has just one

November 10, 2008 Posted by | Uncategorized | Comments Off on Installation and management of XEN on Redhat-linux

Prevent kernel Panic on kernel compilation

This is how you can insure that after compiling a kernel on a remote system you can still have a running system without much bother about kernel panic

This is what the original grub.conf looks like

default=0
timeout=5
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
hiddenmenu
title CentOS (2.6.9-prep)
        root (hd0,0)
        kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.9-prep ro root=LABEL=/ 
        initrd /initrd-2.6.9-prep.img

Ok so now we have compiled a new kernel (for example 2.6.18-prep) and the grub looks like I’ve added the command of panic=5 (can have panic=* where * is the number of seconds it waits on a panic) at the end this is to reboot the computer in 5 seconds if kernel panics and will boot with default=1 kernel.

default=1
timeout=5
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
hiddenmenu
title CentOS (2.6.18-prep)
        root (hd0,0)
        kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.18-prep ro root=LABEL=/ panic=5
        initrd /initrd-2.6.18-prep.img

title CentOS (2.6.9-prep)
        root (hd0,0)
        kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.9-prep ro root=LABEL=/ panic=5
        initrd /initrd-2.6.9-prep.img

or run

perl -pi -e's/LABEL\=\//LABEL\=\/ panic\=5/g' /etc/grub.conf

But we need to test the default=0 kernel to do this before reboot type

echo "savedefault --default=0 --once" | grub --batch

And then reboot. It will boot once with new kernel. you can check it by uname -r

If the m/c successfully boots with the new kernel go ahead and change the grub to defaults to 0 and reboot once more.

November 10, 2008 Posted by | Uncategorized | Comments Off on Prevent kernel Panic on kernel compilation